References. December 13, 2018
http://iaoa.org/, The International Association for Ontology and its Applications.
- the branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being.
- a set of concepts and categories in a subject area or domain that shows their properties and the relations between them (e.g. god’s existence, atomic composition of things).
- the term has a somewhat different meaning in IT industry; is currently used a lot in IT area.
Michael Chumakin: http://thinking-tools.livejournal.com/ , tag ‘English’, Измерение ума в рамках концепции речевого сознания / Михаил Михайлович Чумакин
ISBN 978-3-330-03287-3, speech consciousness, intellectual implements taxonomy.
Francis Bacon, 1561 – 1626. Induction: from observing facts to generalizing (as opposed to deduction). Knowledge is power. New Organon (new method, as opposed to Aristotle), science propagandist.
Galileo Galilei, 1564 – 1642. Acceleration, elescope, father of science: experiment, a trial.
Rene Descartes, 1596 – 1650. Algebra (x, y, z), cartesian coordinate graf, analytical geometry, Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting One’s Reason and of Seeking Truth in the Sciences.
John Locke, 1632 – 1704. Social contract, “tabula rasa”: knowledge is determined only by experience derived from sense perception, empiricism.
Isaac Newton, 1642 – 1727. Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. System of the World. Optics. Physical Laws. Gravitation.
Carl Linnaeus, 1707 – 1778, also known as Carl von Linné, Swedish, “binomial nomenclature” == “scientific name”. He is known by the epithet “father of modern taxonomy”.
Auguste Comte, 1798 – 1857, French philosopher known as the founder of sociology and of positivism.
Herbert Spencer, 1820 – 1903. Coined the phrase ‘survival of the fittest’, social Darwinism.
C. P. Snow, Rede Lecture, 1959: The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution.
Paul Feyerabend, Against Method: Outline of an Anarchist Theory of Knowledge, 1975, philosophy of science.
- a philosophical system that holds that every rationally justifiable assertion can be scientifically verified or is capable of logical or mathematical proof, and that therefore rejects metaphysics and theism.
- the theory that laws are to be understood as social rules, valid because they are enacted by authority or derive logically from existing decisions, and that ideal or moral considerations (e.g., that a rule is unjust) should not limit the scope or operation of the law.
Ludwig von Bertalanffy, 1901 – 1972. Zu einer allgemeinen Systemlehre, Biologia Generalis, 1948. General System Theory, 1968.
Humberto Maturana, born 1928. Autopoiesis, Structural Coupling And Cognition, 1973.
…living systems … existed … as autonomous totalities in a molecular medium with which they were in recursive molecular interchange. Through this understanding my claim became that a living system is a dynamic composite entity, realized as a unity as a closed network of productions of components such that through their interactions in composition and decomposition the components.
Sir David R. Hawkins, M.D., Ph.D., is an internationally renowned psychiatrist, consciousness researcher, spiritual lecturer, and mystic. Author of more than eight books, including the bestseller Power vs. Force, Dr. Hawkins’s work has been translated into more than 17 languages. In the 1970s, he co-authored Orthomolecular Psychiatry with Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling, revolutionizing the field of psychiatry.
Power vs. Force
Levels of human consciousness:
shame, guilt, apathy, grief, fear, desire, anger, pride, courage, neutrality, willingness, acceptence, reason, love, joy, peace, enlightment.
Science as a way to distinguish between two aspects, and go deeper at every step.
Scientifc reasoning is object oriented: there is a certain knowledge system(structure) related to a rigid object structure.
Philosphical reasoning uses categorial structures, categories. “What are the bases of my reasoning?”
Observation, hypothesis, theory, model, Math, formulae, experiment, formal logic, procedures, taxonomy.
Features of a dead matter thing vs a live matter object:
||Eternal, static, constant
||Life-death cycles of any organism, thus: constant change; the whole population of a species tends to live forever
|Condition of being
||Only under certain environmental conditions
|Plus: needs other forms of life to survive
|Laws of Nature
||e.g.: Instantaneous gravity force, other Newton Laws
||‘Dead matter world’ laws plus laws of its own
|Any part of an organism seems to work coordinated with other parts towards its survival, thus: function exchange among organism components
||The best among all species